What is the Difference Between WHERE and HAVING Clause?

What is the difference between WHERE and HAVING Clause? Is it one of the most popular questions asked in interviews, especially to the freshers? these two clauses are very similar to each other. They’re also used to filter records in SQL queries and they primarily restrict the tuples returned by the SELECT statement, Furthermore, the main difference arises when used with the GROUP BY clause. Before making the comparison, first of all, know these SQL clauses. So, let’s first learn about The WHERE and HAVING clauses and then their differences in depth in this article.
Difference Between WHERE and HAVING Clause

WHERE Clause

The WHERE clause is used for the purpose to fetch the data which specifies the given condition. It’s used to filter records and select only required records. The WHERE clause is used with SELECT, UPDATE, DELETE queries to filter records from the table or relation.

It can also implement the logical connectives AND, OR, and NOT. They are called the Boolean condition that must be true to retrieve the records. The logical connectives expressions use the comparison operators as their operands such as =, =, and . The comparison operators are generally used to compare strings and arithmetic expressions.

The WHERE Clause describes a particular condition when retrieving data from a single table or multiple tables using the JOIN clause. If the particular condition is satisfied, it returns the specific value from the table. The WHERE clause places conditions on the chosen or selected columns.

The following syntax demonstrate the use of the WHERE clause:

Let us take an example to understand the WHERE Clause. Consider we have a table named Employee that contain the following data:

Table: Employee

EmpID FirstName LastName Email Mobile Salary DeptID
1 Peg Legge peg04@gmail.com 1245638975 35000 11
2 Isabelle Ringing Ringing12@gmail.com 458569656 45000 12
3 Rhoda Report 13
4 Anita Letterback anita04@gmail.com 458796561 22000 11
5 Amanda Hug hug@gmail.com Otto 54500 13
6 Willie Findit Findit780@gmail.com 789663452 34000 12
7 Don Messwidme 11
8 Faye Clether Clether1104@gmail.com 124589637 65000 13

Example #1: If we want to get the employee detail whose Department ID are greater than 11, then we can use the statement as follows:

As per result, We will get the below output where we can see employee detail whose Department ID are greater than 11:

WHERE Clause


HAVING clause in SQL used in conjunction with GROUP BY keyword enables us to specify conditions that filter which group results seem in the result. It returns only those values from the groups in the final result that fulfills specific conditions. Thus, we can also use the WHERE and HAVING clause together during selection. during this case, the WHERE clause first filters the individual rows, then rows are grouped, performs aggregate calculations, & at last HAVING clause filters the groups.

This clause places conditions on groups created by the SQL GROUP BY clause. It behaves just like the WHERE clause when the SQL statement doesn’t use the GROUP BY Clause. We can use the aggregate functions such as SUM, COUNT, MIN, MAX, and AVG only with two clauses: SELECT and HAVING.

The following syntax demonstrate the use of the HAVING clause:

Demo Table: Magazine

Let us take an example to know the HAVING clause. Here we are considering another table Magazine for demonstration.

ID MagazineName Cost NumPage City CatID Language
1 Playpen 250 30 Lucknow 2 English
2 Little Women 150 35 Delhi 1 Hindi
3 Runway 220 40 Noida 3 English
4 Spy Magazine 180 25 Ghaziabad 1 Hindi
5 Philadelphia Story 240 21 Jhasi 2 English
6 Woollett 120 11 Delhi 1 Hindi


We can also utilize the SQL HAVING clause with logical operators like OR and AND.
Let us consider the SQL statement given below to learn the clause:


WHERE Vs. HAVING Keyword Comparison Chart

Comparison Basis WHERE Clause HAVING Clause
Definition It can be used to perform filtration on individual rows. It can be used to perform filtration on groups.
Basic It is implemented in row operations. It is implemented in column operations.
Data fetching The WHERE clause fetches the specific records from particular rows based on the specified condition. The HAVING clause first fetches the complete records or data. after that, It separates them according to the given condition.
Aggregate Functions The WHERE keyword doesn’t permit to work with aggregate functions. The HAVING keyword can work with aggregate functions.
Act as The WHERE clause acts as a pre-filter. The HAVING clause acts as a post-filter.
Used with We can use the WHERE keyword with the SELECT, UPDATE, & DELETE statements. The HAVING keyword can only use with the SELECT statement.
GROUP BY The GROUP BY keyword comes after the WHERE clause. The GROUP BY keyword comes before the HAVING clause.

Key Differences between WHERE and HAVING Clause

There are the following points justify the main differences between database and schema:

  • SQL WHERE clause filters individual rows, whereas the HAVING clause filters groups rather than one row at a time.
  • We can’t use the WHERE clause with aggregate functions because as you know it works for filtering individual rows. Whereas, HAVING can works with aggregate functions because it is used to filter groups.
  • Row operations are handled by the WHERE clause, whereas the HAVING clause handles column operations to summarized rows or groups.
  • WHERE clause comes before the GROUP BY, it implies that the WHERE clause filters rows before performing aggregate calculations. HAVING clause comes after GROUP BY, which means that the HAVING clause filters rows after performing aggregate calculations. Therefore, HAVING is slower than WHERE in terms of efficiency and should be avoided wherever possible.
  • We can combine the WHERE and HAVING keywords together in a SELECT query. during this case, the WHERE clause is used first to filter individual rows. The rows are then grouped, perform aggregate calculations, & finally, the HAVING is used to filter the groups.
  • The WHERE keyword retrieves the required data based on the specified condition. Whereas the HAVING clause first fetches whole data, and then separation is done based on the required condition.
  • Without a SELECT statement, we can’t use the HAVING keyword. Conversely, we can use a WHERE with SELECT, UPDATE, & DELETE statements.
  • WHERE clause is a pre-filter, On the other hand, HAVING clause is a post-filter.


In this article, we have made a difference or comparision between the WHERE and HAVING clauses. Here, we conclude that both clauses work in an identical way in filtering the data, except some further feature makes the HAVING clause more popular. We can efficiently work with aggregate functions in the HAVING keyword while the WHERE keyword doesn’t allow for aggregate functions.